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ISSN 1995-459X print
E-ISSN 2312-9972 online
ISSN 2500-2597 online English

Leonid Gokhberg


Marion Frenz, Ray Lambert

Оpen and Closed Innovation: A Comparative Analysis of National Practices

2008. Vol. 2. No. 3. P. 16–31 [issue contents]
This paper sets about identifying different and complex innovation practices across nine countries by exploring data from firm level innovation surveys conducted in nine countries: Austria, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, France, New Zealand, Norway, South Korea and the United Kingdom. Our results suggest that innovating firms in these countries adopt one or more of the following innovation modes: 1) ‘new-to-market innovating’, 2) ‘marketing based imitating’, 3) ‘process modernising’, 4) ‘wider innovating’. The extent to which IPRs, external technology, design or marketing activities play a role in these innovation practices varies across countries. For example, in Austria, Denmark and New Zealand diffused technology (externally acquired R&D) is used together with own technology in bringing about novel products, suggesting a more open innovation pattern. In contrast, among firms in France, New Zealand and the UK we identify a greater reliance on IPRs (e.g. patents, copyrights and design registrations) while at the same time omitting externally acquired technologies. The latter may be interpreted as leaning towards a closed approach to innovation among a group of firms.
Citation: Frenz M., Lambert R. (2008) Otkrytye i zakrytye innovatsii: sravnitel'nyy analiz natsional'nykh praktik [Оpen and Closed Innovation: A Comparative Analysis of National Practices]. Foresight-Russia, vol. 2, no 3, pp. 16-31 (in Russian)
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