Journal of the National Research University Higher School of Economics




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SSN 1995-459X print
E-ISSN 2312-9972 online
ISSN 2500-2597 online English

Leonid Gokhberg


Benoit Godin

What is Science? Defining Science by Numbers, 1920-2000 (part 2)

2009. Vol. 3. No. 3. P. 68–81 [issue contents]
Part II of the Benoit Godin’s article “What is science? Defining science by numbers, 1920-2000” concludes the paper which appeared in the previous issue of the journal. It explores discussions surrounding the official interpretation of science and possibilities to broaden it. The article analyses efforts to construct a different concept of science and the reasons why they failed. Provided is an overview of early approaches to statistical measurement of various aspects of scientific activities other than strictly scientific research, including those offered by the US National Science Foundation but excluded from the internationally recognized OECD methodology. The paper also covers UNESCO recommendations of 1978 and their impact on statistics. The author finishes the study with some thoughts on broadening the concept of science in relation to operational nature of the notion.
Citation: Godin B. (2009) Chto takoe nauka? Razvitie statisticheskogo opredeleniya: 1920–2000 (chast' 2) [What is Science? Defining Science by Numbers, 1920-2000 (part 2)]. Foresight-Russia, vol. 3, no 3, pp. 68-81 (in Russian)
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