Foresight and STI Governance, 2017 (4) en-us Copyright 2017 Mon, 25 Dec 2017 10:18:45 +0300 Industry 4.0: New Challenges and Opportunities for the Labour Market The introductory article to the special issue “Labour Market in the Context of Technological Transformations” presents an overall picture of the latest technological trends altogether referred to as the Fourth Industrial Revolution (Industry 4.0), their impact on the changing structure of the labour market, the demand for prospective skills, as well as emerging policy challenges. The author concludes that ensuring the resilience, adaptability and efficiency of labour markets are therefore not only a matter of addressing the skills needs of the Next Production Revolution, but also a prerequisite to social stability and cohesion. The Future of Employment: Evaluating the Impact of STI Foresight Exercises The present paper addresses the impact of Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Foresight and the resulting STI policy thereof on the critical issue of future industry studies, the demand for employment.The impact evaluation exercise relating STI Foresight and employment proposed here converges and integrates different scientific sectors such as the interdependence between employment and welfare framework; the role and weight of technology change to employment dimension; the prospects of emerging and future technologies impacting employment in future industry; the contribution of science, technology and innovation (STI) policies to promoting the generation and real application of new technologies.The paper follows the premise that STI Foresight, as well as Future Technology Analysis, offer a robust basis for the elaboration and monitoring of STI policies with anticipatory intelligence.The core of the paper is dedicated to address the main question of how to identify and choose variables and indicators able to reflect vectors towards the future of employment. The selected vectors are referred to cross effects, trends, and time scales. As far the relationship of technology and employment is concerned, the paper examines cross effect impacts resulting from an input-output analysis, trends indicated in Future Technology Analysis, and time scaling of the technology lifecycle. These parameters are meant to constitute the basic elements for impact evaluation algorithms. In this connection, the paper proposes concepts, measurement techniques, and methods for the evaluation of foresight exercises influencing future changes on employment.Linking policy-making, Foresight, and specific future-looking themes, the paper offers building blocks for constructing standards for the evaluation of foresight exercises. Solo Self-Employment, Human Capital and Hybrid Labour in the Gig Economy In a framework of changing contextual factors, this paper deals with one-person enterprises as the smallest units of entrepreneurial companies, which already represent more than 50% of Austrian companies. Within these micro-enterprises, a special group of self-employed can be identified at the blurred boundaries between dependent work and self-employment: the hybrid solo self-employed, which are primarily operating as a sideline business. These hybrid forms enormously differ from regular entrepreneurs that perform their self-employment as their main business. Based on our own empirical survey, the paper aims to examine whether hybrid entrepreneurs are a homogeneous group or if differences exist with respect to their human capital. Our findings reveal several differences concerning for example, (dependent and self-employment) income, working hours, or one’s main workplace. it can be summarized that education matters when looking at the different aspects of hybrid self-employment activity. Recruiting and Job Search Technologies in the Age of Internet The article considers recruiting via the internet as an organizational innovation in Russian companies. Using data from a survey of employers and RLMS-HSE, we measured the scale of internet-use by employers for recruiting and by employees for the job search, and the factors influencing them. In general, the characteristics of employees and workplaces were in line with one another. Amid companies, internet use was more common in the retail sector, among privately owned and financially successful firms. The internet was more actively used by workers with higher or specialized education from big cities. Internet search complements other search channels and has become the second most popular channel after searching for work through relatives and friends. Relationship between Knowledge Management and Managerial Skills: The Role of Creative Thinking Knowledge management is one of the most critical issues  the managers of organizations, especially educational organizations, must consider. It is aimed at finding new viewpoints about learning, creating knowledge, and developing internal and external competences. This paper investigates the relationship between management skills and knowledge management mediated by creative thinking. The analysis is based on a survey of several hundred managers and teachers at high schools in Isfahan. The research employs a step-by-step regression analysis and structural equations modeling.Based on the results of the calculations, a significant correlation was established between the three main variables of the study: management skills, knowledge management, and creative thinking. Thus, the hypothesis concerning a close relationship between these factors are confirmed. The quality of knowledge management is affected primarily by the level of human skills, as well as by enforcement as a dimension of creative thinking. The findings suggest the need for establishing an organizational environment that fosters the development of knowledge management skills and removes barriers impeding this process. Human Resource Management at Russian Companies — Leaders of the Global Economy One of the main sources of competitiveness on the modern economy are the  intangible assets of companies. In the structure of the intellectual capital assigned to human resources and human capital,  the knowledge, skills, creativity, and employees’ motivation play a special role. The quality of human resources affects the value of the company and human resource management practices, which in turn affect the quality of its human resources.The article focuses on a resource-based view of the firm and human capital theory as fundamental perspectives, linking human resources to achieving a sustainable competitive advantage for the company.The empirical study tested the assumption that Russian companies, the leaders on the world economy, implement management strategies and practices that facilitate the efficient use of human resources in order to achieve one’s main goals, which distinguishes them from companies that have not reached a level of international competitiveness. The main tool for research is a questionnaire – the standard “Investors in People” survey — that is used to assess the effectiveness of policies and practices of the management and development of human resources at companies. The survey involved representatives in executive management positions at 41 public Russian companies; 14 of the surveyed companies were included on the Forbes Global 2000 (2014) and possessed the traits of competitiveness.The results showed that at companies with competitive features, there is a pronounced tendency for the greater involvement of employees in the process of goal-setting and decision-making. There were also some differences in the practice of management personnel between companies with and without indicators of competitiveness. In general, the assumption that Russian companies have reached a level of leadership at a global level, using more effective policies and management practices, and the development of human resources to achieve its goals, as a result of the study, is confirmed. The Approach of the Business Sector to Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) This paper focuses on attitudes towards responsible research and innovation (RRI) and the approaches of business organizations, in that this emerging concept anticipates and assesses the various effects of research and innovation practice. The importance of this issue is highlighted by recent scandals in the automotive industry (and elsewhere). Much of our attention is devoted to corporate responsibility in the fields of research and innovation — an important value that goes beyond research. Our investigation was based on 27 case studies relating to companies from 14 European countries. The selection criteria went beyond those used most frequently in RRI studies, covering fields wider than emerging techno-sciences.This explorative research makes it easier to comprehend the feasibility and importance of empirical research. This feasibility study is a first step in obtaining relevant knowledge about the progress of European companies moving towards responsible research and innovation. The cases investigated show the existing dimensions and mechanisms of RRI in creating and identifying the barriers hindering RRI. The analysis has shown that RRI is little known as a comprehensive concept in companies, but many address RRI topics under other concepts such as CSR or sustainability. Altogether, several features of RRI are well covered by large European companies, and differences in business RRI activities and their scope may be explained by variations in the character of the entities concerned (size, owner-ship, industry). The novelty of this paper lies in its investigation into the business practices of RRI, not only as a whole, but by opening up ‘the black box’ to see which elements are more mature and which need further improvement. It also uniquely illustrates how different business characteristics influence the treatment of various RRI dimensions. Grant Research Support in Russia: What Can We Learn from the Russian Science Foundation’s First Grant Competition? This paper studies the Russian Science Foundation’s first grant competition, which was held in 2014 to select exploratory or basic research projects, in order to shed light on the following two questions: (1) who wins the grants, and (2) what factors are attributed to winning? The subsample of winners (when compared with the whole sample of applicants) seem to have higher proportions of projects submitted to the life sciences section, projects affiliated with the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) and projects from Moscow or the Moscow region. Besides, the heads of the winning projects had better publication indicators. We find that the main factor attributed to winning in the grant competition is the evaluation score given by external experts, while controlling for other factors. Although experts’ score is the most influential factor, the probability of receiving grant is strongly associated with others as well. Thus, projects affiliated with the RAS and with the head of the project holding a doctor’s degree have some advantages, all other factors being equal. Furthermore, projects from the regions and, most importantly, with young project heads, are more likely to win. What Impedes Universities from Creating Dual-Purpose Technologies? Modern universities play a significant role, and in some countries, a key role, in research and development on a large variety of topics, often belonging to the sphere of national security. University research in the US is an illustrative example in this regard, which is an important source of knowledge and technology for the military and its industrial counterparts. However, even with the large number of theoretical and empirical studies focusing on the different aspects of university research innovation activities, so far, the problems of the development of military or dual use technologies by universities has been poorly covered in the economic literature.In this article, the specific features of university participation in defense research and development is examined using the example of the Russian higher education institutions. It is shown that Russian universities are poorly involved in defense-related activities. On the basis of a sample survey of 80 universities and also analyzing certain public policies in research and innovations, the conclusion has been made that higher education institutions have considerable potential for performing research and development for the defense industry. The actual problems and obstacles hindering the development of research activities in the interest of the defense industry at universities are identified, including the traditional orientation of industrial companies on the their own research divisions and sectoral research institutes and design bureaus, weak information about the current opportunities and achievements of university research, inadequate activity of universities in promoting their own research competencies, and the creation of an image of advanced R&D centers. Possible ways of solving the existing problems are proposed.