Foresight and STI Governance, 2019 (3) http://foresight-journal.hse.ru en-us Copyright 2019 Mon, 23 Sep 2019 17:52:10 +0300 User Innovation in the Digital Economy https://foresight-journal.hse.ru/en/2019-13-3/304737304.html The paper reviews the current state of user innovation in the business and the households sectors and considers the impact of the digital economy on user innovation. A general definition of innovation, applicable in all sectors of the economy, is introduced to expand the domain of user innovation to all economic sectors, not just the business sector and households. This raises questions about innovation policy, especially in a digital economy, and how policy affects innovation in households. Outcomes of this study include the implications for skills needed to support user innovation in the different economic sectors of the digital economy and the relevance of user innovation to policy objectives. The Innovative Platform Programme in South Korea: Economic Policies in Innovation-Driven Growth https://foresight-journal.hse.ru/en/2019-13-3/307946128.html After several decades of rapid development, South Korea has recently experienced a critical economic downturn. The paper considers the prerequisites for the current state-of-the-art, as well as the new economic policy agenda aimed at fostering innovation in various sectors, thereby suggesting improved policy directions. To implement the innovation-driven policy, the Korean government produced the framework for the Innovative Platform Programme (IPP), which covers a wide range of sectors related to Industry 4.0 like artificial intelligence and blockchain. For the IPP to be successful, the authors believe, it is vital to understand and resolve the trade-offs between contradictory policy priorities — innovation-led growth, income-led growth, and a fair economy. “Whirlpools” and “Safe Harbors” in the Dynamics of Industrial Specialization in Russian Regions https://foresight-journal.hse.ru/en/2019-13-3/307950669.html This article analyzes sectors of specialization and sectoral dynamics in the regions of the Russian Federation from 2005 to 2015. The study is based on the methodology of the European Cluster Observatory in the 2016 edition as revised by the authors. It proposes a typology of regions depending on the number of specialization industries and the depth of sectoral development: agglomeration, diversification, specialization, and differentiation. Four types of specializations are identified based on the depth of their development and distribution among Russian regions: national leadership, distribution, concentration, and niche development. The authors implemented an approach to study regions through alternative scenarios of sectoral development over a ten-year period: occurrence, strengthening, extinction, and disappearance. The study identifies various structural models that combine the implementation of the described scenarios in relation to various specializations within a particular region. It is shown that the scale and intensity of structural changes largely depends on the region’s proximity to millionaire cities but does not always directly affect economic growth rates. The authors introduce the concepts of “sinkholes”, “streams”, and “safe harbors”, which describe the types of regions with a different type of structural changes that occur depending on the presence or proximity of the millionaire city. Russian Technograds: The Technological Profiles of the Cities https://foresight-journal.hse.ru/en/2019-13-3/307952311.html The paper discusses the technological specialization and patent portfolios of the Russian ‘technograds’ — the cities which are the key actors in contributing to the development of new technologies in the country.A patent analysis used for the study allowed us to identify technological domains where these cities have a significant competitive advantage and high potential for further growth. According to the research-intensity of the domains prevailing in their technological specialization, the technograds might be divided into three categories: oriented towards mostly high technologies (Moscow, St Petersburg, Tomsk), low technologies (Krasnodar, Perm), and those with mixed specialization including both high and low tech (Voronezh, Ufa, Kazan, Novosibirsk, Ekaterinburg, and Samara). To achieve the aim of the research, a new methodological approach was elaborated upon to analyze patent data for individual cities and other smaller geographical units. As a result, the paper might be of interest not only for practitioners and decision makers on the regional and municipal levels, but also for researchers in the fields of regional economics, economic geography, and economics of science, technology, and innovation. Patterns of Investing into Business R&D in South Africa https://foresight-journal.hse.ru/en/2019-13-3/307956075.html The paper explores the patterns of business investment in research and development (R&D) using evidence from companies in South Africa, in comparison with indicators for a number of other countries. This study covers the period 2006–2016, the studied companies were grouped by the amount of R&D expenditures (BERD), the number of reports on research performance for the first and last years of monitoring. A typical characteristic of private sector R&D activities is the uneven distribution of resources in space and time. The major financial and other assets are concentrated within few large companies from a limited number of industries, while the majority of small and medium-sized enterprises invest in R&D projects only sporadically, for a period of no more than two consequential years. Firms that perform R&D for longer periods invest in R&D incrementally and remain more persistent than enterprises performing less R&D for shorter time periods. In view of the common nature of a number of patterns, these observations suggest different approaches to policies supporting R&D performance in the business sector not only in South Africa, but also in other countries. Strategic Entrepreneurship in Russia during Economic Crisis https://foresight-journal.hse.ru/en/2019-13-3/307960221.html The paper explores the patterns of business investment in research and development (R&D) using evidence from companies in South Africa, in comparison with indicators for a number of other countries. This study covers the period 2006–2016, the studied companies were grouped by the amount of R&D expenditures (BERD), the number of reports on research performance for the first and last years of monitoring. A typical characteristic of private sector R&D activities is the uneven distribution of resources in space and time. The major financial and other assets are concentrated within few large companies from a limited number of industries, while the majority of small and medium-sized enterprises invest in R&D projects only sporadically, for a period of no more than two consequential years. Firms that perform R&D for longer periods invest in R&D incrementally and remain more persistent than enterprises performing less R&D for shorter time periods. In view of the common nature of a number of patterns, these observations suggest different approaches to policies supporting R&D performance in the business sector not only in South Africa, but also in other countries. Social Entrepreneurship Policy: Evidences from the Italian Reform https://foresight-journal.hse.ru/en/2019-13-3/307963116.html Social entrepreneurship (third sector) is an increasingly important global economic phenomenon that is squarely under the academic lens. Social entrepreneurship represents an interesting opportunity for policy makers to explore new frontiers of economic growth and implement innovation in a potentially growing services sector with possible job opportunities coming from new job creation in the upcoming decades. Based on evidence from Italy, this paper considers the broader picture of this phenomenon. Addressing the need to better understand the drivers of social entrepreneurship policy, we propose a model for interpreting the impact of the recent Italian reform of the third sector at various levels of the ecosystem, which favors innovation, technology adaptation, and greater employability. The presented results contribute to laying the foundation for the further development of a theory of entrepreneurship policy.